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Art is the reflection of the mentality of human being. in other words art is reflection of a mentality, a sense, or socio-cultural life, by different symbols. And so the traces of art must be treated more or less as evidences of socio-cultural life. According to Gadamer we can comprehend the traces of art within the consciousness of history and within the framework of the concept of "understanding"[1]. If we do not treat art traces within this framework, we can not understand what these and the stamps over them mean. Since the traces of art are occurred in a socio-cultural medium, it is impossible that not reflecting its creators mentality. Especially while treating traditional carpet-rugs and tombstones, every thesis are lack if they disregard the socio-cultural history. Because all the stamps are ethnographical materials those reflect the belief religious mentality of buried people or the rewrs the mental world of the social group, or their positions and roles within social structure. So, the stamps on some tombstones are like information booklet about the buried people, those indicate their age, heroisms, educational position, their tribes, and religious beliefs. The figures on artistic trace are "in association with the form structure it has, adds its own symbolism to the item spiritual dimension, and essence, in other words makes it identical"[2]. For example in Kazakhstan the ram-head figure is not put to the grave of who is not brave. The stamps of carpet-rugs are the same. If you look to carpet-rug photographs taken in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, it is easy to see which of those made by bride or weaved for trousseau. Particularly the fancy colors gibe hints for the reader. They also indicate if the weaver is a widowed or older woman.


It is not an exaggeration to say the stamps are non-written and on-vocal language of a social group. In other words, the tradition, symbolized in material culture, is the non-written abstract expression of a mentality. The tradition expressed by symbols; is an evidence, bridging today and past. In fact the socio-cultural structure is the result of repeated traditions. The tradition is reading of the past with new comments or reading of it again and again. But these repetitions can sometimes be different r have nuances, as socio-cultural change implies.


People communicate with each other by the symbols although they are not being aware of .symbols occur as socio-cultural interactions among people over the years. So they are the memory of a social group. According to symbolic interactionists of sociology "interaction is the total activities other hand is" ... the result of interactions of the people..."[3]. According to interactionists, the objects do not have maning themselves but as result of a symbolic interaction[4]. So even the objects are the same their meaning may differ. For example a cow as an object can be percept as sacred in India, but can be done as beef in somewhere else. Pig on the other hand is meat for Indo-European people but forbidden for Turks. Arrow is a lethal weapon for most of the social groups but ?message, property, freedom` for Turks together with being weapon. For example the term "okuntu olmak", which is rooted from the word "ok" (=arrow) comes from the history it symbolizes the braveness and so independence. In Anatolia the fathers, mothers or older people call younger males as "koçum" (=hey (my) ram), or "koç gibi delikanlı" (=guy like a ram). In folk literature the poems which praise the heroes, are called as "koçaklama".


The symbols not only express an object but they also as Cassier says "are something like religious narrative forms, and leveling up form pure language form through the phenomenology of religious thought"[5] human beings are universe." Language, mythos, art and religion are the parts of this universe"[6]. According to Hegel, "symbol, determines the order of monuments and emblems with those the Eastern nations as creatures of human spirit, are general thoughts about God`s nature. The origin of mythos and traditions comes from the human spirit from the human spirit from this point of view"[7].


      For knowing what do the activities of human, as symbol user, mean; it is necessary to know the socio-cultural structure in which these symbols occurred. In the contrary we can not understand the mental world that the symbols express. So it is necessary to receive stamps here as the products of mental world. Because the researches done in those fields, give less information about random use of symbols by people. Plus, although people use common symbols, the meanings of them may vary.



[1] POLAMA, M.M., Çağdaş Sosyoloji Kurumları (Çev. H. Erbaş), Ankara, 1993, s. 229.

[2] MÜLAYİM, S., "Tanımsız Figürlerin ikonografisi", Türk Soylu Halkların Halı, Kilim ve Cicim Sanatı (Uluslar arası Bilgi Şöleni Bildirileri, 27-31 Mayıs Kayseri), Ankara, 1998, p. 219.

[3] POLAMA, M.M., Ibit, p. 228.

[4] ARAT, N. Ernst Cassirer ve S.K. Langer`de Sembolik Form Olarak Sanat, İstanbul, 1977, p.35.

[5] ARAT, N., Ibid, p.35

[6]ARAT, N., Ibid, p.42

[7] ARAT, N., Ibid, p.43

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